Sandra Charvátová , Benjamin Motais , Justyna Czapla, Tomasz Cichon, Ryszard Smolarczyk,
ZuzanaWalek, Sebastian Giebel, Roman Hájek, and Juli R. Bagó
Myeloma bone disease (MBD) is one of the major complications in multiple myeloma (MM)—the second most frequent hematologic malignancy. It is characterized by the formation of bone lesions due to the local action of proliferating MM cells, and to date, no effective therapy has been developed. In this study, we propose a novel approach for the local treatment of MBD with a combination of natural killer cells (NKs) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) within a fibrin scaffold, altogether known as FINM. The unique biological properties of the NKs and MSCs, joined to the injectable biocompatible fibrin, permitted to obtain an efficient “off-the-shelf” ready-to-use composite for the local treatment of MBD. Our in vitro analyses demonstrate that NKs within FINM exert a robust anti-tumor activity against MM cell lines and primary cells, with the capacity to suppress osteoclast activity (~60%) within in vitro 3D model of MBD. Furthermore, NKs’ post-thawing cytotoxic activity is significantly enhanced (~75%) in the presence of MSCs, which circumvents the decrease of NKs cytotoxicity after thawing, a well-known issue in the cryopreservation of NKs. To reduce the tumor escape, we combined FINM with other therapeutic agents (bortezomib (BZ), and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)), observing a clear therapeutic synergistic effect in vitro. Finally, the therapeutic efficacy of FINM in combination with BZ and TRAIL was assessed in a mouse model of MM, achieving 16-fold smaller tumors compared to the control group without treatment. These results suggest the potential of FINM to serve as an allogeneic “off-the-shelf” approach to improve the outcomes of patients suffering from MBD.