Phytohaemagglutinin-M (PHA-M)

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Phytohaemagglutinin-M (PHA-M) is a lectin extracted from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). The protein consists of two molecular species : a leucoagglutinin (PHA-L) and an erythroagglutinin (PHA-E). Each of the proteins contains a family of five isolectins, each being a tetramer held together by noncovalent forces.

PHA-M is the mucoprotein form and is a crude extract used for the stimulation of cell proliferation in lymphocyte culture. PHA-M also has a powerful erythroagglutinating property and it was originally used for separating leukocytes from whole blood.

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